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Chiado is a traditional historical neighborhood of people of intellectuality and culture with noble characteristics, located in the heart of Lisbon. Chiado is a mix of cosmopolitanism, tradition, history, commerce, luxury and glamour. The heart of the city integrates important streets for commerce with historic buildings, namely Rua Garrett, Largo do Chiado, Largo do Carmo, Rua do Carmo, Rua Nova do Almada and Rua Serpa Pinto. Chiado was built in the 19th century to reproduce the luxury and glamor of Paris, especially the Montmartre district, considered the painters’ district of the French capital, and the Champs Elysées. Chiado was the cultural and intellectual center of the city and the heart of 19th-century and early 20th-century romantic and bourgeois Lisbon. At that time it was common to see ladies in glamorous dresses and gentlemen in top hats strolling in Chiado and having a coffee in Benard or Brazileira. Since then, Chiado has become known as Lisbon’s center of luxury, glamour, intellectuality and art due to the presence of numerous libraries, academies, theatres, cafes, clubs and second-hand booksellers. The development and growth of Chiado was marked by two disasters over time, the earthquake of November 1, 1755 and the fire of August 25, 1988, which in both cases led to the reconstruction and recovery of a large part of the neighbourhood.
The Bairro do Chiado is a place where harmony between new and old, tradition and cosmopolitanism prevail. Chiado is the soul of the city of Lisbon, where you can live, have fun and trade in safety. It is the meeting point for people of different nationalities, cultures and ages. Chiado is much visited due to the existing architectural styles, namely in buildings from the 18th and 19th centuries. Chiado has always been a privileged meeting point for national and foreign intellectuals and artists.
In Chiado, you can feel the past and see statues of writers like Fernando Pessoa or Eça de Queirós sitting at the café A Brasileira in Rua Garrett. Chiado has Bertrand, oldest bookstore in the world created in 1773, Restaurante Tavares, oldest restaurant in Portugal, one of the first elevators on the European continent located in current Benetton store on Rua Garrett and the typical cobblestone street pavement.
The Chiado district is a place full of life, movement during the day and at night, where it is possible to have fun, negotiate and experience the famous Portuguese cuisine. Chiado is also a place where you can live in safety, harmony, in permanent contact with what is new and old.
Attractions to visit in Chiado (Top 10)
- Bertrand Bookstore: The Bookstore Bertrand do Chiado is the oldest operating bookstore in the world, located on Rua Garrett, classified since 2011 by Guinness World Records. The bookstore was inaugurated by Pedro Faure in 1732 and acquired by the Bertrand brothers in 1750, it was usually by personalities, namely, Bocage, Eça de Queiroz, Alexandre Herculano, Oliveira Martins, Antero de Quental or Fernando Pessoa. The space of the Bertrand Bookstore consists of 7 rooms, each decorated with themes depicting renowned Portuguese writers.
- Igreja de São Roque: The Church of São Roque is one of the few churches that withstood the 1755 earthquake, being a living cultural and religious space, visible through the realization of numerous activities, including masses , classical music concerts, fado concerts, chamber music concerts and school visits in Portugal. The church was built in 1556 with the aim of integrating the headquarters of the Companhia de Jesus in Portugal in Church-Auditorium style. This Catholic temple was the privileged stage for sermons given by important figures, namely, by Father António Vieira (1606-1697), a Portuguese missionary and diplomat from the 17th century. The Church of São Roque was the headquarters of the Society of Jesus until the expulsion from Portugal in 1759, and was later handed over in 1768 to the Santa Casa da Misericórdia of Lisbon. The main points of interest of the Igreja de São Roque are:
- Capela de São João Batista: The Chapel of São João Batista is the most expensive chapel in Portugal and the result of a commission from King Dom João V (1689-1750) with the objective of answering to rumors related to the financial bankruptcy of the Portuguese Royal House. The chapel was designated as the Chapel of Saint Baptist because Saint John the Baptist was the Holy Protector of Dom João V. The project was thus commissioned by the architects Vanvitelli and Nicola Salvi, author of the Trevi Fountain in Rome, and supervised by the goldsmith and architect of the House Portuguese Royal João Frederico Ludovice between 1744 and 1747. The Chapel of São João Batista was inaugurated in 1752, two years after the death of Dom João V. The main points of interest are:
- Representations of the Baptism of Christ by Saint John the Baptist, the Annunciation and Pentecost produced in precious stones, by Mattia Moretti and Agostino Masucci
- 24 types of marble stone that decorate the chapel
- Collection of jewelery that includes pieces such as the Custódia de São João Batista, by Tomasio Politi, the Frontal de Altar by the author by António Arrighi, Bernardino Ludovisi and Agostino Corsini or the Tocheiro Monumental by Giuseppe Gagliardi, Leandro Gagliardi and Giovanni Battista Maini
- Ceiling: The church’s roof was built in Prussian wood during the reign of Philip II (1527-1598), and was designed by Francisco Venegas. It is the only roof that remains in Lisbon from the Mannerist period (16th and 17th centuries). The paintings on the ceiling’s lateral strips represent the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, by Amaro do Vale
- Main Chapel: it was paid for by three priests of the Society of Jesus, built between 1625 and 1628. The main altar includes sculptures representing Saint Ignatius of Loyola, the founder of the Society of Jesus, St. Francis Xavier, St. Louis Gonzaga, St. Francis of Borja and Our Lady with “The Child”. The canvases on the main altar of the Church of São Roque are altered in accordance with the liturgical calendar, namely in the following religious festivities:
- Annunciation by Bento Coelho da Silveira ;
- Adoration of Shepherds of Unknown Author;
- Circumcision of unknown authorship;
- Calvary by Bento Coelho da Silveira;
- Resurrection of unknown authorship;
- Pentecost of unknown authorship;
- Assumption of unknown authorship.
- Sacristy: emphasis on three sequences of paintings, especially:
- First sequence representing episodes from the life of São Francisco Xavier by André Reinoso
- Second sequence with paintings representing scenes of the Passion of Christ painted by André Gonçalves
- Third sequence with paintings by Domingos da Cunha and representing episodes from the life of Saint Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus
- Chiado National Contemporary Art Museum: The Chiado National Contemporary Art Museum is a contemporary art museum where we can view national and foreign works of art. The museum was inaugurated in 1911, closed in 1990 and reopened in 1994 on Rua Serpa Pinto in the building of the former Convento de São Francisco. The museum space was remodeled by the architect Jean-Michel Wilmotte and includes collections of foreign and Portuguese artists dating from 1850 to the present day, namely Cândido Portinari, Auguste Rodin, Almada Negreiros, Mário Cesariny, Miguel Ângelo Lupi or Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro.
- Cervejaria da Trindade: Cervejaria da Trindade is the oldest Cervejaria in Portugal, located in the building of the former Monastery of Trindade, on Rua Nova da Trindade. The Cervejaria da Trindade is integrated in the building of the former Convento da Trindade, built in 1294, featuring the following highlights:
- Tile panels with Masonic inspiration by the painter “O Ferreira das Tabuletas”, artistic director of the Fábrica de Cerâmica Viúva Lamego;
- Painéis da Calçada Portuguesa by Maria Keil from the 1940s;
- Portuguese cuisine, especially Bife à Trindade, Bacalhau à Santo Ofício and seafood
- Basilica dos Mártires: The Basilica dos Mártires is an 18th century church, the only church bearing the title of Basilica in Lisbon, located on Rua Garrett. The parish of Nossa Senhora dos Mártires was created in 1147, the year of the Conquest of Lisbon from the Moors, and the first chapel was inaugurated in the place where the camp of the English army that helped in the taking of the city was located. The Mártires Basilica was inaugurated in 1784 in Baroque and Neoclassical style under the guidance of a project by the architect Reinaldo Moreira dos Santos (1731-1791). The highlights of the Basilica of the Martyrs are as follows:
- Painting of Saint Vincent Martyr;
- Painting by Friar Bartolomeu dos Mártires;
- Baptismal font where São Bartolomeu dos Mártires (1514-1590) and Fernando Pessoa (1888-1935) were baptized;
- Image of Our Lady of the Martyrs;
- Ceiling: The ceiling painting of the basilica represents Dom Afonso Henriques, the knight Guilherme Longa and Our Lady by Pedro Alexandrino;
- Medals with representation of the “Four Evangelists”, namely Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, and the “Four Doctors of the Church”, especially St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, St. Jerome and St. Gregory the Great;
- Nativity scene in the 18th century Basilica of the Martyrs by Joaquim Machado de Castro (1731-1822).
- Church of Our Lady of Loreto![(38° 42′ 39.05′, 9° 8′ 33.95”)]: The Church of Our Lady of Loreto is the church of the Italian community in Lisbon since 1785, the only one to hold masses in Italian. Our Lady of Loreto is the Patron Saint of Italy, located in Lisbon due to the great connection of the Italian community to the Portuguese capital, especially due to the large number of Genoese and Venetians who worked in professions related to the sea and commerce. The current church was built through the collaboration of Italian and Portuguese artists under the guidance of the architect Joaquim António dos Reis Zuzarte, and later, by José da Costa e Silva (1747-1819). The Church of Our Lady of Loreto presents as highlights
- Statues of Our Lady of Loreto with “O Menino”, Saint Peter and Saint Paul on the main façade of the church;
- Eighteenth century organ.
- the Image of Our Lady of Loreto that survived the fire; the Sacristy that withstood the 1755 Earthquake and presents the following points of interest;
- The chests of drawers, furniture used to store vestments in churches and built in Pau Santo by António Machado Sapeiro;
- The ceiling painting by Machado Sapeiro;
- The relics of St. Justin Martyr originating in Rome in the 17th century;
- The tile panels by António Pereira Rovasco and Gabriel del Barco;
- Church of the Blessed Sacrament: The Church of the Blessed Sacrament is the only church in Lisbon oriented to the East and the only that holds Mass in Latin on Sunday afternoon. The church has been located on Calçada do Sacramento since its inauguration on April 5, 1807, designed in Baroque style by architect Remígio Francisco de Abreu. The main highlights of the Igreja do Santíssimo Sacramento are:
- Painting representing the angels by Pedro Alexandrino Carvalho;
- Altar of Our Lady of Soledade by Sebastião Alves;
- Six silver lanterns weighing a total of 36 kilos, by Luís José Pereira;
- Ceiling with a painting representing an allegory to the Sacrament, by Pedro Alexandrino;
- Organ built in 1817 by António Xavier Machado e Cerveira;
- Eight paintings on the church’s side walls representing the Four Evangelists, namely Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, and the Four Doctors of the Church, Saint Jerome, Saint Gregory, Saint Ambrose, Saint Augustine and Saint Gregory the Great
- Church of Nossa Senhora da Encarnação: The Church of Nossa Senhora da Encarnação is a parish church located in Largo do Chiado. The first version of the church was built in 1708, having been destroyed during the earthquake of 1755, having been rebuilt in Baroque style with a project by the architect Manuel Caetano de Sousa. The main highlights of the Church of Our Lady of the Incarnation are:
- Sculpture of Our Lady of the Incarnation by Machado de Castro;
- Ceiling paintings by Simão Caetano Nunes;
- Statues of Santa Catarina from the 17th century that survived the earthquake of 1755 by an unknown author.
- São Carlos National Theater![(38.709578, -9.141758)]: The National Theater of São Carlos has been the main Opera House in Portugal since its opening in June 30, 1793 at Rua Serpa Pinto, near Largo do Chiado. The São Carlos National Theater was the first building in Lisbon built in a Neoclassical style, having been built according to the design of the architect José da Costa e Silva (1747-1819), inspired by the theater La Scala in Milan and in the work Essay on Theatrical Architecture by Pierre Patte, edited in 1782. The National Theater of São Carlos is also distinguished by the creation of a Choir of the Theater that in 1843, of the Portuguese Symphonic Orchestra in 1953 and for the performance of operas between September and July of each year. The main points of interest are:
- Exterior facade with Balcony: existence of a central table with a written dedication to Dona Carlota Joaquina (1775-1830) and Intendente Pina Manique (1733-1805), two important figures in the construction of the Theater, and two side tables with symbolic representations of the Caduceus of Mercury. The Caduceus of Mercury is represented as a rod intertwined by two serpents touching at the top, carried by Roman Generals when establishing Peace. union and meeting point of all social classes;
- Interior with the Showroom: The Showroom was built in an oval shape and decorated with golden materials in a project designed by Manuel da Costa. The room has five orders of cabins, balconies and an audience with a capacity of approximately 600 seats. The Showroom features as highlights A lamp with 10.9 meters in circumference and 284 lamps; the Paintings on the ceiling of the vestibule and on the curtain wall by Cirilo Wolkmar Machado; the Ceiling Paintings in the salon by Manuel da Costa; and the Paintings of the Royal Box by Giovanni Appiani.
- Armazéns do Chiado: Armazéns do Chiado is a covered shopping center spread over several floors, with a total of 54 stores, 12 restaurants, 3 kiosks and a terrace overlooking the Castle of São Paulo. Jorge distributed by Rua do Carmo, Rua Nova do Almada and Rua Garrett. FNAC is the largest store in this commercial space, opened in 1999 with a project by the architects Álvaro Siza Vieira and Souto Moura, with the objective of reproducing the grandeur of the former Grandes Armazéns do Chiado, opened in the same place on November 19, 1894 and inspired by the shopping centers of Paris. The building where the Armazéns do Chiado are currently located has performed various functions over the centuries, including Convent of Espírito Santo da Pedreira of the Order of the Oratory of São Filipe Nery between 1674 and 1834, residence of the Baron of Barcelinhos between 1755 and 1883, Hotel Gibraltar between 1883 and 1874, Hotel Universal between 1874 and 1883, Companhia dos Grandes Armazéns do Chiado between 20 November 1894 and 25 August 1988, day of the Chiado Fire.
Other places to explore in Chiado
- Café A Brazileira: Café A Brazileira is one of Lisbon’s most notable historic cafés and a meeting point for intellectuals since its foundation in 1905 at Rua Garrett. Adriano Telles, a northerner who was born in Alvarenga, left at the age of twelve for Brazil, where he got rich in the coffee business. The name of the space came about precisely because the coffee was imported from Brazil and sold to Lisboners. This entrepreneur opened several stores where he sold coffee in Lisbon, Braga and Seville. The establishment Café A Brazileira is located in a central and privileged location in the city of Lisbon, and is therefore a meeting point for many Lisboners and tourists due to its proximity to Praça Camões, Largo do Chiado and Baixa-Chiado Metro Station. Café A Brasileira presents several curiosities, namely the fact that the Portuguese expression “BICA” is often used to order a coffee, as it was in this place that it appeared for the first time in the form of the abbreviation B.I.C.A., which only means “Drink Isto Com Açúcar”. The points of interest of Café A Brazileira are the Paintings inside the establishment of Almada Negreiros, Eduardo Viana, Jorge Barradas, António Soares, Stuart Cavalhães, José Pacheko and Bernardo Marques ; the Bronze Statue of Fernando Pessoa by Lagoa Henriques, inaugurated in 1988; and gastronomy, especially chicken pies, steak à Brazileira, seafood bread soup and lemon meringue pie.
- Teatro da Trindade: The Teatro da Trindade is one of the oldest theaters in Lisbon and the place where the first Portuguese-style magazines were shown in the 19th century, located in Rua Nova da Trindade. The building was built by the writer and playwright Francisco Palha de Faria Lacerda (1827-1890) on the site of the former Academia da Trindade, it was the first Popular Theater of Opera in Portugal. The Teatro da Trindade was inaugurated on November 30, 1867 with a project by Miguel Evaristo de Lima Pinto in Neoclassical style and is one of the most important places in Portuguese dramaturgy. The theater had several plays on display, namely the first edition of Os Maias by Eça de Queiroz in 1888, being considered by Eça de Queiroz as the Theater of Lisbon. The main highlights of the Teatro da Trindade are the Medallions representing the writers António Ferreira (1528-1569), Damião de Góis (1502-1574) and Sá de Miranda (1481) -1558); and the Bust of Terpsichore, the Greek muse of dance.
- Teatro São Luiz: Teatro São Luiz is a theater in the city of Lisbon focused on promoting Portuguese culture through the performing arts. The Teatro São Luiz has been located on Rua António Maria Cardoso since its inauguration on May 22, 1894, inaugurated with the name Teatro Dona Amélia in honor of the Queen of Portugal Dona Amélia (1865-1951) ). The theater was designed by architect Louis-Ernest Reynaud in collaboration with set designer Luigi Manini (1848-1936). The São Luiz Theater was one of the first sound movie theaters in the city of Lisbon from 1930 onwards.
- Pastelaria Alcôa: Pastelaria Alcôa is a famous pastry due to the high quality of convent sweets, namely the custard tarts and cornucopias. Pastelaria Alcôa da Rua Garrett has the following highlights:
- Conventural sweets, namely the Cornucopia and the Pastel de Nata;
- The building of Casa da Sorte considered heritage of the city of Lisbon. The building’s decoration is by the artist Querubim Lapa (1925-2016), having been inaugurated in 1963 as Casa da Sorte.
- Entretanto Rooftop: The Meanwhile Rooftop is a terrace with panoramic views over the city of Lisbon located on the seventh floor of the Hotel do Chiado in Rua Nova do Almada. The terrace is integrated into the hotel bar, and it is possible to observe the Tagus River on the right and the Santa Justa Elevator and Baixa Pombalina on the left. The terrace allows you to observe the city of Lisbon with the deep blue on summer days.
- Church of the Incarnation ![(38° 42′ 59.10”, 9° 8′ 20.82”)]: the Church of the Incarnation was inaugurated in 1708 and completely rebuilt after the Earthquake of 1 of November 1755 by the architect Manuel Caetano de Sousa (1738-1802). Highlights are the chancel, the four chapels and statues on the church façade
- A Vida Portuguesa: The Vida Portuguesa store is a store where you can find historical Portuguese brands part of national culture, namely the Andorinha, the newspaper Borda d’Água, the cans of Tricana or the Licor Beirão. Vida Portuguesa became a success story, leading to the opening of several stores across the country, including two in the Chiado district.
- Faculty of Fine Arts of the University of Lisbon: The Faculty of Fine Arts of the University of Lisbon is the oldest higher art school in the country, and has been in continuous operation since 1836 in the building from the former Convento de São Francisco to the Chiado located in the Place of the National Academy of Fine Arts. The Convent of São Francisco ao Chiado was built in 1217, having performed various functions throughout history, namely as the national headquarters of the Order of São Francisco, General Study, equivalent to the current University, hospice, regimental hospital, Court library in 1798 and Academy of Fine Arts. The Faculty of Fine Arts currently has around 1700 students spread over 29 courses, offering two research centers, multimedia art laboratories, sculpture laboratories, painting laboratories, library, archive and a virtual museum.
- Basilica of the Martyrs
- Literary Guild
- Church of the Incarnation
- Church of Loreto
- Church of the Sacrament
- Chiado Museum: National Museum of Contemporary Art
- Luís de Camões Square
- Garrett Street
- Trinity Theatre
- São Carlos National Theater
- Theatre of São Luiz
- Mário Viegas Studio Theater
- São Carlos National Theater
- Fast Theatre
- Terraços do Carmo
Historic Stores to visit in Chiado
The Historic Stores are part of a project created by the City Council in 2015 with the aim of protecting the material, historical and cultural heritage, and on the other hand, boosting commercial activity that contributes to identity and character of the city of Lisbon. 82 Historic Stores are currently part of this network.
- Luvaria Ulisses: Luvaria Ulisses is part of the network of Historic Stores, created with the aim of protecting the cultural heritage of the city of Lisbon. Luvaria Ulisses is a store solely dedicated to the sale of gloves, since its opening in 1925 by Joaquim Rodrigues Simões on Rua do Carmo. The store is small, with only one corridor, however it deserves a visit due to the quality of the items sold, the friendliness of the staff, the interior decoration by the carver Carlos de Alcântara Kotz and the façade designed by the engineer Arthur Guilherme Rodrigues Cohen.
- Pastelaria Benard: Pastelaria Benard is one of the few patisseries, patisseries specializing in Parisian-inspired sweets that still exist in Lisbon, where you can eat delicacies such as croissants . The patisserie has been located on Rua Garrett since 1902, and the first store was opened in Rua do Loreto in 1868 by Élie Bénard with the name Patisserie Benard. Maria Augusta Gomes, current owner, turned the space into a must-visit place due to the quality of the simple croissants, chocolate or egg candy, and cultural activities related to music or painting. Pastelaria Benard was the stage for several curious episodes throughout history, namely:
- The patisserie was one of the few places where women were allowed without the company of men;
- The patisserie changed its name to Pastelaria Benard in 1926 due to the ban on foreign names on building facades;
- Queen Elizabeth II of England dined here during her visit to Portugal between February 18th and 23rd, 1957.
- Tavares Restaurant: The Tavares Restaurant is one of the oldest restaurants in Europe and the oldest in operation in Portugal, having been inaugurated in 1784 by the Tavares brothers on Rua da Misericórdia. The Tavares Restaurant is also known as Tavares Rico because the owner decided to open another restaurant that he called Tavares Pobre , which is currently deactivated. the Tavares Restaurant was innovative in several aspects, namely through the introduction of à la carte menus or the import of foreign specialties, namely the French patés. The main highlights of Tavares Restaurant are:
- Quality of gastronomy, namely Caviar Oscietra Pestrige, Flounder Meunière, Steak à Tavares and Pistachio Soufflé
- Salão Nobre: a room with a tribute to illustrious figures who have passed through the restaurant, namely Amália Rodrigues, Almada Negreiros, Eça de Queiroz, Cary Grant, Eisenhower, Calouste Gulbenkian, Hemingway or Madonna
- Historical meetings of Eça de Queiroz: The writer Eça de Queiroz deserves a special mention and tribute in the restaurant due to the organization of meetings of the Vencidos da Vida group between 1887 and 1894
- Casa Havaneza: Casa Havaneza is the oldest tobacconist in Lisbon since it was opened in 1861 by François Caen and Charles Vanderin in association with banker Henry Burnay, with the objective of selling tobacco from Cuban origin in a store located in Largo do Chiado. The store became one of the most important meeting points in Lisbon for writers, intellectuals, politicians or artists with the objective of exchanging information about Lisbon life and society. The tobacconist offers several quality products, including Cohiba, Montecristo or Romeo y Julieta cigars and smoker accessories such as lighters, cigar cutters or cigar boxes. There are four stores located in Chiado, Centro Comercial Amoreiras, Centro Comercial Colombo and Casa Havaneza in Porto.
- Livraria Ferin: Livraria Ferin is the second oldest bookstore in the country, inaugurated in 1840 by the Belgian Jean-Baptiste Ferin on Rua Nova do Almada. The bookstore achieved great prestige, was named Official Bookbinder of the Portuguese Royal House at the wish of King Dom Pedro V (1837-1861). The bookstore has approximately fifteen thousand books and documents displayed on wooden counters, cabinets or shelves. The history of Livraria Ferin presents a curious episode, the fact that it was one of the few buildings that did not burn in the Incendio do Chiado on August 25, 1988.
- A Carioca: A Carioca is a historic coffee and tea shop founded in 1936 by Isidoro Teixeira on Rua da Misericórdia.
- André Ópticas: André Ópticas is a historic eyewear shop, inaugurated as Óptica Ramos in 1888 on Rua Garrett.
- Barbearia Campos: Barbearia Campos is the oldest barbershop in the country, having been inaugurated in 1886 in Largo do Chiado.
- Casa Pereira: Casa Pereira is a historic shop that sells teas and coffees since its founding in 1930 on Rua Garrett.
- Andrade Pharmacy: Andrade Pharmacy was the first pharmacy to use the first medicinal substances in glass ampoules since its inauguration in 1837.
- Florista Pequeno Jardim: Florista Pequeno Jardim is the last florist in Chiado open to the public since 1922.
- Joalharia do Carmo: Joalharia do Carmo is a historic store that sells silver jewelry and objects since 1926 on Rua Garrett.
- Piglet & Brother: Leitão & Irmão is a historic store on Rua Garrett that sells jewelery, places orders for engraving, transforming pieces, restoring or cleaning.
- Paris in Lisbon: The store Paris in Lisbon had an almost immediate success when it opened its doors in 1888 because it sold items related to French fashion.
- Sapataria Carmo: Sapataria Carmo was inaugurated in 1904 in Largo do Carmo by Francisco de Oliveira Abrantes with the objective of selling quality shoes and with the distinction of each shoe having the brand logo stamped .
Main Streets and Squares of Chiado
- Rua Garrett: Rua Garrett, formerly Rua do Chiado, was designated as such from the 14th of June 1880 at the wish of the Mayor of the time José Gregório da Rosa Araújo in tribute to Almeida Garrett (1799-1854), writer and promoter of the Theater in Portugal. Almeida Garrett, writer and politician, was largely responsible for the introduction of Romanticism in Portugal through the works Camões of 1825, Dona Branca dated 1825, Viagens na Minha Terra from 1846 and for the renovation of Portuguese theater with the production of Frei Luís de Sousa in 1844. Almeida Garrett was also deputy, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Consul General in Belgium, creator of the Conservatory of Dramatic Art of the National Theater and the General Inspectorate of Theaters. It is on Rua Garrett that we find the Bertrand Bookstore, the Alma restaurant, a chocolate stall, the Kaffeehaus and the Instituto Macrobiotic de Portugal.
- Largo do Chiado: Largo do Chiado is the main square in the Chiado district, connecting Praça Camões, Rua da Misericórdia, Largo São Carlos and Rua Garret. In the Largo do Chiado you can see the statue of the poet António Ribeiro Chiado, the Café A Brasileira, the Igreja da Misericórdia, the Igreja do Loreto and the Baixa-Chiado metro station, being a busy space, with the regular performance of street artists and the presence of tourists and Portuguese from all over the country, sounds and smells from all over the world . Largo do Chiado was once one of the most important entrances and exits to Lisbon, with the construction of the Portas de Santa Catarina, between 1373 and 1375, destroyed in the beginning of the 18th century.
- Largo de São Carlos: Largo de São Carlos is a pedestrian square connecting Rua Paiva de Andrade and Rua Serpa Pinto, built in a square shape with the aim of highlighting the Theatro Nacional de São Carlos, the main building on this site. The square presents itself as a privileged place for lovers of classical music and opera, with free outdoor concerts being held frequently during the summer season. The Largo de São Carlos was named after the foundation of the theater in the 18th century. Largo de São Carlos is the place where we can find the São Carlos National Theater, where the house where Fernando Pessoa was born and lived during his childhood is located. The Largo de São Carlos was thus designated until October 18, 1913, the year in which it was temporarily named Largo do Directory in honor of the headquarters of the Republican Party Portuguese and the Directory in Lisbon. This name would change again to “Largo de São Carlos” on May 28, 1956.
- Calçada do Santíssimo Sacramento: The Calçada do Santíssimo Sacramento is the connection between Rua Garrett and Largo do Carmo, being so named due to the presence of the Igreja do Santíssimo Sacramento.
- Rua da Anchieta: The name “Rua da Anchieta” was given in 1885 in honor of the explorer and naturalist José Anchieta, responsible for collecting specimens of animal and botanical species for the Lisbon Museum between 1864 and 1865. The Rua da Anchieta connects Rua Garrett and Rua Capelo Ivens, being one of the busiest streets in Chiado due to the presence of shops, restaurants and local accommodation. Rua da Anchieta is an easily accessible street for pedestrians and vehicles.
- Rua Serpa Pinto: Rua Serpa Pinto was named in honor of the African explorer Alexandre de Serpa Pinto (1846-1900) since 7 September 1885. Serpa Pinto was the most important explorer of Africa in Portugal, having been responsible for the exploration of a route that made the connection through the interior of the African continent connecting Angola to Mozambique between 1879 and 1884. This exploration later gave rise to Pink Map and the diplomatic conflict between Portugal and England in 1890. Rua Serpa Pinto has had several names throughout history, namely:
- Rua do Saco: so designated because it was a dead end street. The designation Rua do Saco was common in Portugal until the 17th century for streets that had no exit;
- Rua Nova dos Mártires;
- Rua Leva da Morte: it was so called due to the death of 6 prisoners and 1 guard and 60 wounded out of a total of 151 prisoners and 253 guards who were being transported from the Civil Government to the Station of Trains from Cais do Sodré. The shooting and what was then considered a massacre took place precisely on the current Rua Serpa Pinto on October 16, 1918
- October 16th Street: it is so named due to the episode mentioned in the previous point
- Largo da Trindade: Largo da Trindade has been named since 1913 for two reasons: 1. it is the site of the Church and Convent of the Order of the Holy Trinity a since the 13th century, and 2. in honor of José Francisco de Trindade Coelho (1861-1908), republican writer and politician, founder of the newspapers Gazeta de Portalegre and Comércio de Portalegre, author of books such as O ABC do Povo in 1901, The Political Manual of the Portuguese Citizen in 1906 and as a columnist in several newspapers and magazines. Largo da Trindade has had several names throughout history, namely:
- Largo de São Roque: this name arose when in 1509 Dom Manuel I ordered the construction of a hermitage with the purpose of housing a relic of São Roque, the Protector patron saint against Plague, of the Invalids and of Surgeons, due to the great epidemic of Black Plague that existed in the city of Lisbon. The Igreja de São Roque was transformed into the headquarters of the Society of Jesus in Portugal in 1553;
- Largo do Cauteleiro: named after the Statue in homage to Cauteleiros, a street vendor of lotteries or games of chance. The Cauteleiro Statue, designed by Fernanda de Assis, was inaugurated on November 18, 1987 to commemorate the 204 years of the National Lottery. The headquarters of the Santa Casa da Misericórdia in Lisbon was also inaugurated in this same location on the same date.
- Rua Nova da Trindade: Rua Nova da Trindade was opened to circulation in 1836 after the destruction of the Convento da Santíssima Trindade, which had existed since the 13th century. Rua Nova da Trindade is currently one of the busiest streets in Chiado due to the presence of restaurants such as the Cervejaria da Trindade, the Bairro do Avillez or the sala de performances Teatro da Trindade
- Place of the National Academy of Fine Arts: The National Academy of Fine Arts Square has been so designated since April 6, 1982 due to the presence of the Escola Superior de Belas-Artes.
- Largo Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro: Largo Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro, former Largo da Albergoaria, was renamed after February 11, 1915 in honor of Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro (1846-1905). Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro was the author, caricaturist of several works and characters, including the Zé Povinho created in 1875. This unique artist performed the most varied functions throughout his life, namely the as a caricaturist in magazines such as A Lanterna Mágica or O Mosquito or as an artistic director of Fábrica de Faianças in Caldas da Rainha. Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro was mainly known for his ceramics but also for his criticism of political society at the end of the 19th century
Trivia do Chiado
The Largo do Chiado was formerly the Largo das Duas Igrejas, located in front of the old Portas de Santa Catarina, the entrance to Lisbon. In 1707 the Portas de Santa Catarina were destroyed to allow the passage of the procession of Dona Maria Ana de Austria, Queen of Dom João V. In Largo do Chiado there was one of the busiest entrances to the city of Lisbon. to Bairro Alto, formerly known as Villa Nova de Andrade. Portas de Santa Catarina were intersected by Rua Direita das Portas de Santa Catarina, where royal processions, religious processions, popular festivals and cultural events in Lisbon since the 16th century passed, for example, the nuptial processions of Dom Afonso IV and Dona Maria de Sabóia in 1666 and the nuptial procession of Dom José I with Dona Maria Vitória de Bourbon in 1729. Chiado was an upscale neighborhood where the palaces of the Nobility and the Upper Bourgeoisie were located. areas hardest hit by the earthquake of 1 November 1755.
The Bairro do Chiado integrates two parish councils in the city of Lisbon:
- St. Nicholas
Five-star Tourist Resorts
- Bairro Alto Hotel
- Chiado16 Boutique Hotel
- Nossa Senhora da Conceição Parish Externate (Chiado center)
- Health Institutions:
- José Manuel Curado Prates: Dermatology and Venerology
- Third Order Hospital
Four Star Tourist Resorts
- Borges Chiado Hotel
- Hotel do Chiado
- Lisbon Carmo Hotel
- Lisbon Pessoa Hotel
- Mercy 9Hotel
- Boutique Hotel Theater
- Lisb-On Hostel
- PH in Chiado
Shops where to shop in Chiado
- Adolfo Dominguez
- Ana Salazar
- Chiado Warehouses
- Antiquário do Chiado
- Jewelry of Carmo
- Bertrand Bookstore
- Bookstore Ferin
- Sapataria do Carmo
Chiado has the following transport and access:
- Lisbon Metropolitan:
- Baixa-Chiado Metro Station (Blue and Green Lines)
Parking-parks in Chiado:
- Rua Nova do Almada Park
- Rua Almirante Pessanha Park in Largo do Carmo
- Camões Park
- Parque do Chiado
Fairs, Festivals and Pilgrimages in Chiado
- Fair of Booksellers: held daily in Rua da Anchieta
- Sacramento Craft Fair: held on the third Sunday of each month at Largo do Carmo
History of Chiado
Chiado was founded in the 12th century and quickly became the favorite place of residence for the Portuguese Nobility. After the earthquake of 1 November 1755, Chiado became one of the most important areas of the city of Lisbon due to the works carried out by the Marquês de Pombal. Chiado went through several important events in the History of Portugal, namely the French invasions of the beginning of the 19th century and the liberal revolution of 1820. This Lisbon neighborhood was uninhabited during the 20s of the 19th century. Chiado became Lisbon’s literary, artistic and cultural reference from the 1930s onwards, a situation that remains today. The most striking event in the recent history of Chiado was the fire in the Armazém do Chiado building on August 25, 1988. The flames quickly spread throughout the building, threatening the entire neighborhood. The building was reconstructed by Portuguese architect Álvaro Siza Vieira and maintains the name “Armazéns do Chiado”, which includes 55 shops, 15 restaurants and 1 hotel.
Chiado and The Lisbon Earthquake of November 1, 1755
Lisbon was the victim of three catastrophes on November 1st, 1755: an earthquake, followed by a tsunami and followed by a fire. The catastrophes called into question everything from one of the greatest empires in the world to the beliefs of the people. The catastrophes were described and painted by foreign residents in Lisbon, namely Daniel Braddock. The English worked in Lisbon due to the trade that came from Brazil, especially gold. Lisbon, like any Catholic city of the 18th century, was celebrating All Saints Day, one of the most important feasts of Catholicism in honor of all the saints and martyrs of the Catholic Church. On November 1, 1755, most of Lisbon’s residents were inside the 19 convents, 40 parish churches and 130 chapels in Lisbon at 9:30 am when the earth began to shake. The earthquake’s epicenter took place approximately 250 km southwest of Portugal in the Atlantic Ocean, triggering the largest earthquake in European history with a magnitude of nine degrees on the Richter Scale.
November 1, 1755 Earthquake
Lisbon began to tremble at approximately 9:30 am and a few minutes later it was covered with ash and sand that turned day into night. The Portuguese capital became the city of darkness, a city worthy of Dante’s Inferno. Many people believed that the tragedy was a divine punishment from God. After the earthquake, most of the survivors fled to the area closest to the Tagus River, not knowing that another disaster was beginning. The tsunami took approximately ninety minutes to reach Lisbon and was so devastating that thousands of bodies and furniture were spotted ten days later in the Atlantic Ocean by a ship’s captain.
Fire of November 1, 1755
The fire happened after the Lisbon tsunami on November 1, 1755, as a result of the fall of thousands of candles lit for the masses that were going to be held on All Saints’ Day. Started out as hundreds of small fires spread throughout the city that turned into a big fire. On November 2, 1755 the city of Lisbon was burning almost completely, it was a firestorm. The fire storm especially hit the Baixa area, a valley surrounded by three hills, where temperatures exceeded a thousand degrees centigrade. Lisbon became a huge flame for the survivors of these three catastrophes. The fire lasted approximately a week. During the catastrophe of 1755, Lisbon was the scene of looting, death and assaults, with the destruction of the city’s jails and the escape of prisoners. Criminals organized themselves into groups to loot, steal, rape and kill whatever they found. The discovery of a mass grave beneath the former Convento de Jesus, the current Academy of Sciences, indicates that cannibalism existed among the survivors due to shortages of food. This situation led to the adoption of Martial Law by the Marquis of Pombal.
November 1, 1755 Fire
The main buildings in the city were destroyed, namely the Church of Santa Catarina, the Church of São Paulo, the Palace of the Dukes of Bragança, the Pátio da Inquisition, the Royal Library, the treasure kept in the warehouses of the Casa da Índia, the Paço da Riverside. Many Europeans considered the destruction of Paço da Ribeira the equivalent of the loss of the Library of Alexandria in Ancient Egypt. At the same time, some brothels survived the tragedy, which led people to question why the churches were destroyed and these places were not. The Marquis of Pombal decided to react and take immediate measures, namely cleaning the streets, forbidding the population to settle outside Lisbon, inventorying the destroyed properties, rebuilding the city and imposing martial law. Lisbon lost between fifteen and one hundred thousand people and Portugal approximately half of its wealth. The earthquake sparked an intense debate in Europe about science, nature and God. Voltaire was one of the European figures who was dismayed by the tragedy and who sought more answers through the publication of several works, including Cândido, the hero who survived the earthquake and began to debate the meaning of the Church in society.